Draft Charter – Peoples’ Social Forum

Draft Founding Charter of the Peoples’
Social Forum

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Definition, objectives, principles and head office

Definition

1.1.1 The Peoples’ Social Forum (PSF) is a critical public space aimed at fostering activist involvement of individuals and civil society organizations that want to transform Canada as it exists today. It is intended as a space for social movements to meet and converge, for the free expression of alternative ideas and grassroots exchanges and for artistic manifestations reflecting a
diversity of demands and aspirations. It seeks to stimulate practical involvement and the development of networked action strategies aimed at fostering the convergence of struggles and building a broad strategic alliance against neo-liberal and neo-conservative policies in Canada with social justice, Original Peoples’ rights, sustainable development, international solidarity and participatory democracy at the centre of
its concerns. The PSF is an inclusive space that must be occupied by all people and activist organizations convinced that another Canada is not just possible but above all necessary.

1.1.2 The PSF’s organizational arrangements set out below (the General Assembly of the PSF, the Co-ordinating Council, committees, expansion commissions and caucuses) are aimed at facilitating the holding of the Forum as such. The structures thus created are open to all those who as individuals or delegates of  organizations intend to help make the PSF a reality. They are aimed at a convergence in solidarity of good intentions, initiatives, resources and skills. For administrative and operational purposes, a legal entity named Towards a PSF Initiative will be created.
Note, however, that none of the various participants in this organizational structure, be they individuals or representatives of organizations, can claim to represent the PSF or speak on its behalf.

Objectives

1.2 As an inclusive space for activist grassroots debate, the PSF intends to:

  • Foster constructive and mobilizing societal debate across the country;

  • Recognize and honour the territories and the rights of the Original Peoples whose territories we reside on and where the PSF takes place.

  • Act in solidarity with Original Peoples through rejecting the racist Doctrine of Discovery and Terra Nullius.

  • Prompt individual and collective grassroots participation;

  • Share, promote and circulate alternative initiatives and projects;

  • Stimulate the emergence of concrete actions and the convergence of struggles against neo-conservatism and neo-liberalism;

  • Promote sustainable development across Canada in a spirit
    of solidarity, justice, equality and harmony.

Statement of principles

1.3.1 The PSF is part of the global movement of social forums
that have emerged at different levels since the first World Social Forum (WSF) was held in Porto Alegre (Brazil) in January 2001. The PSF intends, however, to root itself in the dynamic of local, regional and national initiatives and thus take full advantage of the thinking, analysis and proposals already developed by civil society.

The PSF therefore supports and is inspired by the principles and
proposals set out in the following documents:

  • World Social Forum Charter of Principles (WSF, 2001)

  • United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN, 2007)

  • Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth (2010)

1.3.2 The principles and proposals brought together in this reference
document must not, however, be interpreted as something akin to a political program put forward by the PSF. The PSF does not represent individuals and no one is authorized to speak on its behalf. The PSF
is above all a critical public space from which a plurality of alternative proposals and dissident voices should emerge.
Nonetheless, certain principles and proposals, including those in the above-mentioned documents, can serve as a general framework for debates as a whole.

Head office

1.4 The head office of the PSF is located in the city that hosts the
next Forum.

Chapter 2: Ethical landmarks for discussions and debates within the PSF

2.1 The PSF is an open meeting space aimed at furthering thinking and analysis, debate on democratic ideas, the development of proposals, completely free exchanges of experiences and the development of effective actions from civil society in response to the latter’s need to find alternatives to neo-liberalism and the domination of the world by Capital. It works towards building a human-centred society, seeks to propose initiatives to solve problems of exclusion, social inequalities and the environment and aims to recognize human dignity
and the rights of Original Peoples.

2.2 The PSF is a plural and diversified, secular, non-government and
non-partisan space that allows for a decentralized interaction and interconnection in networks of organizations, movements and individuals engaged in concrete actions at the local, regional and national levels.

2.3 Conceived as a space for exchanging experiences, the PSF stimulates knowledge and mutual recognition of participating organizations, movements and individuals by valuing their exchanges and discussions,
especially about what society is building in order to direct economic activity and political action. These exchanges and discussions are aimed at taking into account human needs and rignts, along with respect for nature in a sustainable development perspective in
solidarity with future generations.

2.4 As a space for interconnecting different mobilizations, the PSF
seeks to strengthen and create new local, regional and national networks among the various components of civil society, with a view to enhancing the capacity for non-violent resistance to the process of dehumanization that the world is experiencing.

2.5 The PSF is a cross-Canada process that invites organizations,
movements and individuals to take an active part in issues faced by people as members of society, participate in public debate and share the transformative practices that they try out.

Chapter 3: Organizational arrangements for the PSF

3.1 In order to carry out the process of organizing in the best possible
conditions a PSF that is open, inclusive and participatory, the following organizational arrangements are established. Their underlying logic is participation and inclusion, and they have been developed by considering basic organizational requirements:

  • General Assembly Co-ordinating Council
  • General Secretariat Committee
  • Communications Committee
  • Mobilization Committee
  • Logistics Committee
  • Program Committee
  • Finance Committee
  • Cultural Committee
  • Expansion Commissions
  • Caucuses

3.2 These various organizational arrangements are aimed solely at
holding a successful PSF. It is not the purpose of the assemblies, committees, commissions and caucuses to represent the PSF. They are simply organizational structures whose sole purpose is to facilitate holding the PSF and make it a reality.

3.3 Everyone’s skills and good intentions are welcome within the PSF’s organizational structure. A special invitation is made tothe many nations of Original Peoples of Canada and various organizations in civil society (non-government organizations, unions, community groups, various collectives…) because of their capacity for mobilizing, their expertise on the matters that will be addressed and their community involvement. They are therefore invited to delegate people to the various committees, expansion commissions and caucuses with a view to creating synergy with individual volunteers who also wish to get involved.

3.4 It is fundamental that these various structures operate in a way
that is open and transparent in order to ensure the legitimacy of the PSF’s organizing process and make it consistent with the principles it espouses. Thus the members and minutes of all the Peoples’ Social Forum’s Assemblies and meetings of the Council, committees, expansion commissions and caucuses, as well as all strategic decisions and financial statements, must be made public on the PSF’s web site.

Chapter 4: General Assembly of the Peoples’ Social Forum

Powers and composition of the General Assembly

4.1 The General Assembly of the Peoples’ Social Forum brings together everyone (individuals or delegates from organizations) involved in organizing the PSF, be it through committees, expansion commissions or caucuses or through the process of mobilization and communications. The General Assembly will be the fundamental decision-making body.

Meetings

General Assembly of the Peoples’ Social Forum

4.2 Assemblies of the Peoples’ Social Forum are held in the place set
by the General Secretariat Committee, following consultations with the Co-ordinating Council. The General Assembly should meet at least once a year.

Notice of meeting

4.3.1 All General Assemblies are announced on the web site, by
e-mail or by any other means available. Notice of meeting for an assembly should give the date, time and place of the assembly as well as the proposed agenda.

4.3.2 To facilitate the participation of all in the Assembly,
in particular those who cannot attend in person, all the meetings should be held at least 30 days after the notice of meeting is sent to all potential participants (the notice of meeting must be accompanied by a detailed agenda from the General Secretariat Committee). This period of time will allow people who can’t attend the event in person to send their comments, suggestions, amendments and resolutions to the Assembly, through the General Secretariat
Committee.

Quorum

4.4 Quorum for a General Assembly is set at 20 people.

Decision-making

4.5.1 Decisions are made by consensus, or in other words by seeking general agreement among the members of the Assembly. If there is disagreement, other solutions by which consensus can be reached must be found.

Chapter 5: Co-ordinating Council

5.1 The Co-ordinating Council is composed of one person elected from each expansion commission and each caucus, as well as all the members of the General Secretariat Committee. It is the body that makes the decisions about the PSF’s organizational process. It monitors and follows up on the progress of the PSF’s organizational process, asking the coordinators of the various committees to report on where their work is at. It rules on disputes that may arise between committees and sets out the basic strategic lines of the PSF’s organizational process.

Meetings and conference calls or web and other forms of remote conferencing

5.2 Conference calls or web and other forms of remote conferencing of the Co-ordinating Council are organized by the General Secretariat Committee after consultations with the Council itself. There should be conference calls, web or other forms of remote conferencing at
least once a month, in accordance with the decision-making and organizational requirements of the various committees, expansion commissions and caucuses.

5.3 Meetings are held at the place chosen by the General Secretariat
Committee after consultations with the members of the Co-ordinating Council. There should be at least three in-person meetings of the Co-ordinating Council a year, in accordance with the decision-making and organizational requirements of the various committees, expansion commissions and caucuses.

Notice of meeting

5.3.1 All the conference calls, web or remote conferencing and
meetings of the Co-ordinating Council are announced by e-mail or any other means available. Notice of meeting for conference calls, web or remote conferencing and meetings should give the date, time and place of the meeting, if appropriate, and the proposed agenda.

5.3.2 To facilitate the participation in meetings of the Co-ordinating
Council, in particular those who cannot attend in person, all the meetings should be held at least 15 days after the notice of meeting is sent to all potential participants, accompanied by a detailed agenda from the General Secretariat Committee. This period of time
will allow people who can’t attend the event in person to send their comments, suggestions, amendments and resolutions to the meeting through the General Secretariat Committee.

Quorum

5.4 Quorum for a conference call or web or other form of remote conferencing or meeting is set at 50% of persons mandated by the expansion commissions and caucuses, with the addition of the people from the General Secretariat Committee.

Decision-making

5.5.1Decisions are made by consensus, or in other words by seeking general agreement among the members of the assembly. If there is disagreement, other solutions by which consensus can be reached must be found.

Chapter 6: Committees

General considerations

6.1.1 Committees are composed of people (individuals or
delegates from organizations) interested in being involved in the PSF organizational process. Each committee operates independently with respect to
carrying out its tasks. It must, however, work in collaboration with the other committees in the general organizational process of the PSF and recognize the General Secretariat Committee’s coordinating role for the work as a whole.

6.1.2 In order to ensure the continuity of the PSF’s organizational
process and proper coordination of tasks, a paid PSF staffperson will be assigned to the General Secretariat Committee, with the possibility of adding others if the Co-ordinating Council so agrees.
These people will ensure a regular presence and response to external questions or requests (phone, mail, e-mail) and provide liaison for all internal requests among committees, the Co-ordinating Council, the expansion commissions and caucuses. These people will be paid out of funds raised for organizing the PSF and their appointment will be
ratified by the Co-ordinating Council. They will work at the PSF head office.

6.1.3 With a view to consolidating the PSF organizational process while actively involving civil society organizations, we strongly urge organizations to delegate representatives (regular members, trainees or volunteers) to the various committees, the Co-ordinating Council, expansion commissions and caucuses. Making resource people available is fundamental to consolidating the PSF organization process through a sharing of our expertise and skills. We furthermore invite organizations to provide material support for the PSF, either directly through financial contributions or by making certain material resources available.

6.1.4 Each committee appoints a co-ordinator charged with ensuring
follow-up on its work and representing the committee at the General Secretariat Committee. It will be preferable that this person live in the city where the Forum takes place because of the work that she or
he will have to do with the General Secretariat Committee. The committee also designates a secretary whose task is to produce a report for each meeting. Each committee decides for itself how to designate these people.

6.1.5 Participation in the various committees as co-ordinator or secretary is exclusive, meaning that a person cannot play these roles for more than one committee.

The General Secretariat Committee

Roles

6.2.1 Draft notices of meeting, agendas and minutes of Co-ordinating
Council meetings and General Assemblies.

6.2.2 Ensure communications among the various working committees, as well as with the Coordinating Council, expansion commissions and caucuses, ensure that the committees carry out their mandates and play a co-ordinating role for a successful PSF.

6.2.3 Manage a fully transparent PSF web site, ensuring that all relevant information is compiled and made available.

6.2.4 Keep distribution lists up to date and making them available.

6.2.5 Ensure a regular presence and response to outside requests.

6.2.6 The General Secretariat Committee will be composed of the
co-ordinators of each committee and the general staff. Staff will be elected by the Co-ordinating Council.

6.2.7 It is preferable for the General Secretariat Committee to maintain a regular presence in at the PSF head office in the city where the Forum will take place.

6.2.8 Work in close collaboration with the community of indigenous peoples living on the territory where the Forum takes place in order to include and respect the protocol
in force in that community.

The Communications Committee

Roles

6.3.1 Develop a national communications strategy for setting out the
relevance of organizing a PSF in Canada.

6.3.2 Work in close collaboration with resource people on the various
communications committees of each expansion commission and caucus, or with the various expansion commissions and caucuses if they don’t have communications committees, to gather input for its information base and promote the sharing of information among the various components of the PSF. The materials published will be distributed with the help of the web site and social media (drafting texts,
interviews).

6.4.3 Draft media releases reporting on the progress of the PSF
organizational process.

6.3.4 Develop and share various promotional materials (posters, logos, leaflets…) with the expansion commissions and caucuses. Expansion commissions and caucuses are free to adapt such promotional materials.

6.3.5 Be the liaison with various media (community and traditional, print, audio and audiovisual press). Special attention will be paid to alternative media.

6.3.6 Post relevant information and documents on the PSF web site.

6.3.7 Be present on blogs, social media sites and electronic media.

6.3.8 Organize media coverage of the PSF.

The Mobilization Committee

Roles

6.4.1 Develop a national mobilization strategy to foster the participation of people from all across Canada in the PSF.

6.4.2 Mobilize the expansion commissions and various caucuses to create their own mobilization, communications and finance committees.

6.4.3 Work in close collaboration with resource people on the various
mobilization committees of each expansion commission and caucus, or with the various expansion commissions and caucuses if they don’t have mobilizations committees, to foster the sharing of information and promotional materials among the various components and stimulate participation and mobilization for the PSF.

6.4.4 Establish mobilization strategies, in particular for regions that are under-represented.

6.4.5 Stimulate mobilization and participation in the PSC by
contacting organizations and movements likely to take part in the PSF through the distribution of promotional materials and PSF issues and by organizing mobilization activities.

6.4.6 Encourage awareness work and grassroots education about the social forum process by organizing information sessions for which the committee can draw on resources internally and externally.

6.4.7 Work in close collaboration with the Communications Committee to establish the various mobilization strategies.

6.4.8 Work in close collaboration with the Program and Communications Committees to mobilize around issues addressed by the PSF.

6.4.9. Work on mobilization in close collaboration with the Logistics
Committee around possibilities for transportation and accommodations.

The Logistics Committee

Roles

6.5.1 Take charge of planning the logistics of all aspects of the PSF
(facilities, food, transportation, accommodations, venues for events and cultural productions, accessibility…).

6.5.2 Look after recruiting volunteers and distributing them in accordance with their fields of interest and the needs of the PSF.

6.5.3 Promote car-pooling and solidarity-based accommodations.

6.5.4 Work in close collaboration with the host city to co-ordinate the holding of the event, but also to identify local partners to supply various requirements (e.g. audio-visual equipment) or equip and outfit meeting sites (social economy enterprises).

6.5.5 Can create ad hoc sub-committees to take charge of certain specific aspects of logistics (food, accommodations…).

6.5.6 Work in close collaboration with the Mobilization Committee,
expansion commissions and caucuses, in particular with respect to transportation and accommodations.

6.5.7 Work in close collaboration with the Program Committee for
infrastructure, technology and translation requirements for the PSF.

6.5.8 Plan for a parallel youth camp, working closely with the groups
concerned and obtaining special permission or an exemption from the host city.

6.5.9 Look after registration of participants, booths and payments. Create an on-line payment system to facilitate the process.

The Program Committee

Roles

6.6.1 Develop the program structure for the PSF, identifying the key
topics and cross-cutting themes covering the major issues, paying special attention to indigenous realities and struggles.

6.6.2 Promote, inform and explain the key topics and various cross-cutting themes chosen in order to stimulate participation and creativity.

6.6.3 Create theme and participatory spaces to encourage broader participation, convergence and shared discussion as well as networking among organizations and individuals participating in the PSF.

6.6.4 Identify the various kinds of activities that will be held at the
PSF, developing a methodology (talks, workshops, discussion groups…).

6.6.5 Manage the self-programming process, dialoguing with the
various participants and putting together a calendar for the event.

6.6.6 Encourage the grouping together of activities to make programming more coherent.

6.6.7 Take charge of co-managed activities (major talks/lectures),
stimulating the participation of relevant speakers on the various themes addressed.

6.6.8 Work in close collaboration with the Cultural Committee of
the PSF, encouraging participation and stimulating it as needed.

The Finance committee

Roles

6.7.1 Establish ethical rules for assessing the relevance of donations
from private or public enterprises.

6.7.2. Work in close collaboration with the people in charge of the finance committees of expansion commissions and caucuses, in particular to facilitate ethical fund-raising.

6.7.3 Establish a schedule of rates, notably to ensure fair treatment of
financial partners, as well as for the various forms of registration.

6.7.3 Prepare the PSF budget and keep it up to date.

6.7.4Look for sources of funding.

6.7.5 Oversee finances.

The Cultural Committee

Roles

6.8.1 Take charge of the PSF’s cultural programming, taking into account the key topics and cross-cutting themes.

6.8.2 Work in close collaboration with the Program Committee, in particular to establish creative spaces.

Chapter 7: The Expansion Commissions

General considerations

7.1 The expansion commissions are composed of individuals and organizations within a given territory. Each expansion commission is independent in its internal operations and respects the principles of the PSF in its work. The role of the commissions is crucial for the inclusion of a
regional dynamic in the PSF.

7.2 Each commission decides for itself how to designate its roles and responsiblities to the PSF and will inform the PSF accordingly. One or more person(s) is in charged for ensuring follow-up on its work and representing the commission on the Co-ordinating Council

7.3 The PSF encourages the creation of expansion commissions in order to improve its representative nature. It is the Co-ordinating Council that recognizes a new expansion commission, following which a person mandated by that commission sits on the Coordinating Council.

7.4 The PSF encourages the creation of mobilization, communications and finance committees. Each committee works independently on carrying out the tasks assigned to it. It must, however, work in collaboration with the national committees on the general organizing process of the PSF and must recognize the co-ordinating role of the national committees in the overall work.

Roles

7.5 Expansion commissions can contribute actively to the work of the
various national committees, in particular by enriching and relaying information put out by the Communications Committee, organizing information sessions, setting up distribution mechanisms, organizing transportation to facilitate participation in the PSF by individuals and organizations in the regions, supplying volunteers for the PSF, contributing to programming, be it through stimulating self-programming or proposing panelists for co-managed activities, and finally, finding funding for such activities and also more generally for the PSF.

Chapter 8: Caucuses

General considerations

8.1 Caucuses are grouped around common interests or struggles. Each caucus is independent in its internal operations and respects the principles of the PSF in its work. The role of caucuses is crucial for the inclusion of diverse communities in the PSF.

8.2 Each caucus decides for itself how to designate its roles and
responsiblities to the PSF and will inform the PSF accordingly.
One or more person(s) is in charged for ensuring follow-up on its work and representing the caucus on the Co-ordinating Council.

8.3 The PSF encourages the creation of caucuses in order to ensure that it is more representative. It is the Co-ordinating Council that recognizes a new caucus, following which a person mandated by that caucus sits on the Co-ordinating Council.

8.4 The PSF encourages the creation of mobilization, communications and finance committees. Each committee works independently on carrying out the tasks assigned to it. It must, however, work in collaboration with the national committees on the general organizing process of the PSF and must recognize the co-ordinating role of the national
committees in the overall work.

Roles

8.5 Caucuses can contribute actively to the work of the various national committees, notably by enriching and relaying information put out by the Communications Committee, organizing information sessions, setting up distribution mechanisms, organizing transportation to
facilitate participation in the PSF by individuals and organizations in the regions, supplying volunteers for the PSF, contributing to programming, be it through stimulating self-programming or proposing panelists for co-managed activities, and finally, finding funding for such activities and also more generally for the PSF.

Chapter 9: Legal representation, financial arrangements and contracts

General considerations

9.1 With a view to facilitating fund-raising and the administrative
management of the PSF (financial responsibility in the event of debt, signing contracts with suppliers of services on the event site, negotiating with local, regional and national authorities, applying for a pay subsidy for secretariat staff, facilitating the creation of
a real head office…), it is important, in addition to the various organizational arrangements set out above, to constitute a legal entity (a non-profit organization, or NPO). The creation of this parallel entity is simply designed to facilitate the organization of the PSF. The members designated for this facilitating group will not
have any decision-making authority on their own.

Legal representation

9.2 To give legal status to the PSF organizational structure (under the name of Towards a PSF Initiative), the Co-ordinating Council should elect a president, secretary and treasurer from within its ranks.

9.3 The secretary should come from the General Secretariat Committee and the treasurer from the Finance Committee.

Banking documents

9.4 The persons elected president and treasurer have signing authority for banking documents. In the absence of either one, the secretary is authorized to sign.

Contracts

9.5 Contracts and other documents requiring the group’s signature are first approved by the Co-ordinating Council in response to a proposal from the committees concerned. Following this approval, contracts are
signed by two of the officers (president, secretary or treasurer).

Chapter 10: Amendments to the by-laws

10.1 The General Assembly has the authority to rescind or amend any
provision of these bylaws. Any amendment to the charter must be adopted by consensus of the members present at the assembly. Notice of motion must be sent to members 30 days before the assembly is held, indicating the subject of the amendments.

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART 1

Appendices

World Social Forum Charter of Principles

The committee of Brazilian organizations that conceived of, and
organized, the first World Social Forum, held in Porto Alegre from January 25th to 30th, 2001, after evaluating the results of that Forum and the expectations it raised, consider it necessary and legitimate to draw up a Charter of Principles to guide the continued pursuit of that initiative. While the principles contained in this Charter – to be respected by all those who wish to take part in the process and to organize new editions of the World Social Forum – are a consolidation of the decisions that presided over the holding of the Porto Alegre Forum and ensured its success, they extend the reach of those decisions and define orientations that flow from their logic

1. The World Social Forum is an open meeting place for reflective thinking, democratic debate of ideas, formulation of proposals, free exchange of experiences and interlinking for effective action, by groups and movements of civil society that are opposed to neoliberalism and to domination of the world by capital and any form of imperialism, and are committed to building a planetary society directed towards fruitful relationships among Humankind and between it and the Earth.

2. The World Social Forum at Porto Alegre was an event localised in time and place. From now on, in the certainty proclaimed at Porto Alegre that “Another World Is Possible”, it becomes a permanent process of seeking and building alternatives, which cannot be reduced to the events supporting it.

3. The World Social Forum is a world process. All the meetings that are held as part of this process have an international dimension.

4. The alternatives proposed at the World Social Forum stand in opposition to a process of capitalist globalization commanded by the large multinational corporations and by the governments and international institutions at the service of those corporations’ interests, with the complicity of national governments. They are designed to ensure that globalization in solidarity will prevail as a new stage in world history. This will respect universal human rights, and those of all citizens – men and women – of all nations and the environment and will rest on democratic international systems and institutions at the service of social justice, equality and the sovereignty of peoples.

5. The World Social Forum brings together and interlinks only organizations and movements of civil society from all the countries in the world, but it does not intend to be a body representing world civil society.

6. The meetings of the World Social Forum do not deliberate on behalf of the World Social Forum as a body. No-one, therefore, will be authorized, on behalf of any of the editions of the Forum, to express positions claiming to be those of all its participants. The participants in the Forum shall not be called on to take decisions as a body, whether by vote or acclamation, on declarations or proposals for action that would commit all, or the majority, of them and that propose to be taken as establishing positions of the Forum as a body. It thus does not constitute a locus of power to be disputed by the participants in its meetings, nor does it intend to constitute the only option for interrelation and action by the organizations and movements that participate in it.

7. Nonetheless, organizations or groups of organizations that participate in the Forums meetings must be assured the right, during such meetings, to deliberate on declarations or actions they may decide on, whether singly or in coordination with other participants. The World Social Forum undertakes to circulate such decisions widely by the means at its disposal, without directing, hierarchizing, censuring or restricting them, but as deliberations of the organizations or groups of organizations that made the decisions.

8. The World Social Forum is a plural, diversified, non-confessional,
non-governmental and non-party context that, in a decentralized fashion, interrelates organizations and movements engaged in concrete action at levels from the local to the international to build another world.

9. The World Social Forum will always be a forum open to pluralism and to the diversity of activities and ways of engaging of the organizations and movements that decide to participate in it, as well as the diversity of genders, ethnicities, cultures, generations and physical capacities, providing they abide by this Charter of Principles. Neither party representations nor military organizations shall participate in the Forum. Government leaders and members of legislatures who accept the commitments of this Charter may be invited to participate in a personal capacity.

10. The World Social Forum is opposed to all totalitarian and reductionist views of economy, development and history and to the use of violence as a means of social control by the State. It upholds respect for Human Rights, the practices of real democracy, participatory democracy, peaceful relations, in equality and solidarity, among people, ethnicities, genders and peoples, and condemns all forms of domination and all subjection of one person by another.

11. As a forum for debate, the World Social Forum is a movement of ideas that prompts reflection, and the transparent circulation of the results of that reflection, on the mechanisms and instruments of domination by capital, on means and actions to resist and overcome that domination, and on the alternatives proposed to solve the problems of exclusion and social inequality that the process of capitalist globalization with its racist, sexist and environmentally destructive dimensions is creating internationally and within countries.

12. As a framework for the exchange of experiences, the World Social Forum encourages understanding and mutual recognition among its participant organizations and movements, and places special value on the exchange among them, particularly on all that society is building to centre economic activity and political action on meeting the needs of people and respecting nature, in the present and for future generations.

13. As a context for interrelations, the World Social Forum seeks to strengthen and create new national and international links among organizations and movements of society, that – in both public and private life – will increase the capacity for non-violent social resistance to the process of dehumanization the world is undergoing and to the violence
used by the State, and reinforce the humanizing measures being taken by the action of these movements and organizations.

14. The World Social Forum is a process that encourages its participant organizations and movements to situate their actions, from the local level to the national level and seeking active participation in international contexts, as issues of planetary citizenship, and to introduce onto the global agenda the change-inducing practices that they are experimenting in building a new world in solidarity.

Approved and adopted in São Paulo, on April 9, 2001, by the organizations that make up the World Social Forum Organizing Committee, approved with modifications by the World Social Forum International Council on June 10, 2001.


United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly

[without reference to a main committee (A/61/L.67 and Add._)]

61/295. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

The General Assembly,

Taking note of the recommendation of the Human Rights Council contained in its resolution 1/2 of 29 June 2006,1 by which the Council adopted the text of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,

Recalling its resolution 61/178 of 20 December 2006, by which it decided to defer consideration of and action on the Declaration to allow time for further consultations thereon, and also decided to conclude its consideration before the end of the sixty-first session of the General Assembly,

Adopts the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as contained in the annex to the present resolution.

107th plenary meeting

13 September 2007

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

The
General Assembly,

Guided by
the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and
good faith in the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by States in
accordance with the Charter,

Affirming that
indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognizing
the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves
different, and to be respected as such,

Affirming also that
all peoples contribute to the diversity and richness of civilizations
and cultures, which constitute the common heritage of humankind,

Affirming further that
all doctrines, policies and practices based on or advocating
superiority of peoples or individuals on the basis of national origin
or racial, religious, ethnic or cultural differences are racist,
scientifically false, legally invalid, morally condemnable and
socially unjust,

Reaffirming that
indigenous peoples, in the exercise of their rights, should be free
from discrimination of any kind,

Concerned that
indigenous peoples have suffered from historic injustices as a result
of, inter alia, their colonization and dispossession of their lands,
territories and resources, thus preventing them from exercising, in
particular, their right to development in accordance with their own
needs and interests,

Recognizing the
urgent need to respect and promote the inherent rights of indigenous
peoples which derive from their political, economic and social
structures and from their cultures, spiritual traditions, histories
and philosophies, especially their rights to their lands,

Recognizing also the
urgent need to respect and promote the rights of indigenous peoples
affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements
with States,

Welcoming the
fact that indigenous peoples are organizing themselves for political,
economic, social and cultural enhancement and in order to bring to an
end all forms of discrimination and oppression wherever they occur,

Convinced that
control by indigenous peoples over developments affecting them and
their lands, territories and resources will enable them to maintain
and strengthen their institutions, cultures and traditions, and to
promote their development in accordance with their aspirations and
needs,

Recognizing that
respect for indigenous knowledge, cultures and traditional practices
contributes to sustainable and equitable development and proper
management of the environment,

Emphasizing the
contribution of the demilitarization of the lands and territories of
indigenous peoples to peace, economic and social
progress and development,
understanding and friendly relations among nations and peoples of the
world,

Recognizing in particular the
right of indigenous families and communities to retain shared
responsibility for the upbringing, training, education and well-being
of their children, consistent with the rights of the child,

Considering that
the rights affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive
arrangements between States and indigenous peoples are, in some
situations, matters of international concern, interest,
responsibility and character,

Considering also that
treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements, and the
relationship they represent, are the basis for a strengthened
partnership between indigenous peoples and States,

Acknowledging that
the Charter of the United Nations, the International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights2
and the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights,
as
well as the Vienna Declaration
and Programme of Action,
affirm
the fundamental importance of
the right to self-determination of all peoples, by virtue of which
they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their
economic, social and cultural development,

Bearing in mind that
nothing in this Declaration may be used to deny any peoples their
right to self-determination, exercised in conformity with
international law,

Convinced that
the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in this
Declaration will enhance harmonious and cooperative relations between
the State and indigenous peoples, based on principles of justice,
democracy, respect for human rights, non-discrimination and good
faith,

Encouraging States
to comply with and effectively implement all their obligations as
they apply to indigenous peoples under international instruments, in
particular those related to human rights, in consultation and
cooperation with the peoples concerned,

Emphasizing that
the United Nations has an important and continuing role to play in
promoting and protecting the rights of indigenous peoples,

Believing that
this Declaration is a further important step forward for the
recognition, promotion and protection of the rights and freedoms of
indigenous peoples and in the development of relevant activities of
the United Nations system in this field,

Recognizing and reaffirming that
indigenous individuals are entitled without discrimination to all
human rights recognized in international law, and that indigenous
peoples possess collective rights which are indispensable for their
existence, well-being and integral development as peoples,

Recognizing that
the situation of indigenous peoples varies from region to region and
from country to country and that the significance of national and
regional particularities and various historical and cultural
backgrounds should be taken into consideration,

Solemnly proclaims the
following United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
Peoples as a standard of achievement to be pursued in a spirit of
partnership and mutual respect:

Article 1

Indigenous
peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a collective or as
individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as
recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights4
and international human rights law.

Article
2

Indigenous
peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and
individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of
discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that
based on their indigenous origin or identity.

Article
3

Indigenous
peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of that right
they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their
economic, social and cultural development.

Article
4

Indigenous
peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the
right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their
internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing
their autonomous functions.

Article
5

Indigenous
peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct
political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while
retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the
political, economic, social and cultural life of the State.

Article
6

Every
indigenous individual has the right to a nationality.

Article
7

1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life,
physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.

2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right
to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall
not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence,
including forcibly removing children of the group to another group.

Article
8

1. Indigenous peoples and individuals have the
right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of
their culture.

2.
States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and
redress for:

(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving
them of their
integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic
identities;

(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing
them of
their lands, territories or resources;

(c) Any form of forced population transfer which has the
aim or effect
of violating or undermining any of their rights;

(d) Any form of forced assimilation or integration;

(e) Any form of propaganda designed to promote or incite
racial or
ethnic discrimination directed against them.

Article
9

Indigenous
peoples and individuals have the right to belong to an indigenous
community or nation, in accordance with the traditions and customs of
the community or nation concerned. No discrimination of any kind may
arise from the exercise of such a right.

Article
10

Indigenous
peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or
territories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior
and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after
agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the
option of return.

Article
11

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to practise
and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. This includes
the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and
future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and
historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and
visual and performing arts and literature.

2. States shall provide redress through effective
mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction
with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural,
intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their
free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws,
traditions and customs.

Article
12

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest,
practise, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions,
customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have
access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to
the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the
repatriation of their human remains.

2. States shall seek to enable the access and/or
repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains in their
possession through fair, transparent and effective mechanisms
developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned.

Article
13

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to
revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their
histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems
and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for
communities, places and persons.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure
that this right is protected and also to ensure that indigenous
peoples can understand and be understood in political, legal and
administrative proceedings, where necessary through the provision of
interpretation or by other appropriate means.

Article
14

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish
and control their educational systems and institutions providing
education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their
cultural methods of teaching and learning.

2. Indigenous individuals, particularly children,
have the right to all levels and forms of education of the State
without discrimination.

3. States shall, in conjunction with indigenous
peoples, take effective measures, in order for indigenous
individuals, particularly children, including those living outside
their communities, to have access, when possible, to an education in
their own culture and provided in their own language.

Article
15

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the
dignity and diversity of their cultures, traditions, histories and
aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected in education and
public information.

2. States shall take effective measures, in
consultation and cooperation with the indigenous peoples concerned,
to combat prejudice and eliminate discrimination and to promote
tolerance, understanding and good relations among indigenous peoples
and all other segments of society.

Article
16

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish
their own media in their own languages and to have access to all
forms of non-indigenous media without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to
ensure that State-owned media duly reflect indigenous cultural
diversity. States, without prejudice to ensuring full freedom of
expression, should encourage privately owned media to adequately
reflect indigenous cultural diversity.

Article
17

1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the
right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable
international and domestic labour law.

2. States shall in consultation and cooperation
with indigenous peoples take specific measures to protect indigenous
children from economic exploitation and from performing any work that
is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s
education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical,
mental, spiritual, moral or social development, taking into account
their special vulnerability and the importance of education for their
empowerment.

3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to
be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter
alia, employment or salary.

Article
18

Indigenous
peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters
which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by
themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to
maintain and develop their own indigenous decisionmaking
institutions.

Article
19

States
shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples
concerned through their own representative institutions in order to
obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and
implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect
them.

Article
20

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain
and develop their political, economic and social systems or
institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of
subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their
traditional and other economic activities.

2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of
subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress.

Article
21

1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without
discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social
conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education,
employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation,
health and social security.

2. States shall take effective measures and,
where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement
of their economic and social conditions. Particular attention shall
be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women,
youth, children and persons with disabilities.

Article
22

1. Particular attention shall be paid to the
rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children
and persons with disabilities in the implementation of this
Declaration.

2. States shall take measures, in conjunction
with indigenous peoples, to ensure that indigenous women and children
enjoy the full protection and guarantees against all forms of
violence and discrimination.

Article
23

Indigenous
peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and
strategies for exercising their right to development. In particular,
indigenous peoples have the right to be actively involved in
developing and determining health, housing and other economic and
social programmes affecting them and, as far as possible, to
administer such programmes through their own institutions.

Article
24

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to their
traditional medicines and to maintain their health practices,
including the conservation of their vital medicinal plants, animals
and minerals. Indigenous individuals also have the right to access,
without any discrimination, to all social and health services.

2. Indigenous individuals have an equal right to
the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and
mental health. States shall take the necessary steps with a view to
achieving progressively the full realization of this right.

Article
25

Indigenous
peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinctive
spiritual relationship with their traditionally owned or otherwise
occupied and used lands, territories, waters and coastal seas and
other resources and to uphold their responsibilities to future
generations in this regard.

Article
26

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the
lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned,
occupied or otherwise used or acquired.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use,
develop and control the lands, territories and resources that they
possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional
occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise
acquired.

3. States shall give legal recognition and
protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such
recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs,
traditions and land tenure systems of the indigenous peoples
concerned.

Article
27

States
shall establish and implement, in conjunction with indigenous peoples
concerned, a fair, independent, impartial, open and transparent
process, giving due recognition to indigenous peoples’ laws,
traditions, customs and land tenure systems, to recognize and
adjudicate the rights of indigenous peoples pertaining to their
lands, territories and resources, including those which were
traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used. Indigenous peoples
shall have the right to participate in this process.

Article
28

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to redress,
by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible,
just, fair and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and
resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied
or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used or
damaged without their free, prior and informed consent.

2. Unless otherwise freely agreed upon by the
peoples concerned, compensation shall take the form of lands,
territories and resources equal in quality, size and legal status or
of monetary compensation or other appropriate redress.

Article
29

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the
conservation and protection of the environment and the productive
capacity of their lands or territories and resources. States shall
establish and implement assistance programmes for indigenous peoples
for such conservation and protection, without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure
that no storage or disposal of hazardous materials shall take place
in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples without their free,
prior and informed consent.

3. States shall also take effective measures to
ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring, maintaining and
restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and
implemented by the peoples affected by such materials, are duly
implemented.

Article
30

1. Military activities shall not take place in
the lands or territories of indigenous peoples, unless justified by a
relevant public interest or otherwise freely agreed with or requested
by the indigenous peoples concerned.

2. States shall undertake effective consultations
with the indigenous peoples concerned, through appropriate procedures
and in particular through their representative institutions, prior to
using their lands or territories for military activities.

Article
31

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain,
control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional
knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the
manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures,
including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of
the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures,
designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts.
They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop
their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional
knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.

2. In conjunction with indigenous peoples, States
shall take effective measures to recognize and protect the exercise
of these rights.

Article
32

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine
and develop priorities and strategies for the development or use of
their lands or territories and other resources.

2. States shall consult and cooperate in good
faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own
representative institutions in order to obtain their free and
informed consent prior to the approval of any project affecting their
lands or territories and other resources, particularly in connection
with the development, utilization or exploitation of mineral, water
or other resources.

3. States shall provide effective mechanisms for
just and fair redress for any such activities, and appropriate
measures shall be taken to mitigate adverse environmental, economic,
social, cultural or spiritual impact.

Article
33

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine
their own identity or membership in accordance with their customs and
traditions. This does not impair the right of indigenous individuals
to obtain citizenship of the States in which they live.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine
the structures and to select the membership of their institutions in
accordance with their own procedures.

Article
34

Indigenous
peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their
institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality,
traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases where they exist,
juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human
rights standards.

Article
35

Indigenous
peoples have the right to determine the responsibilities of
individuals to their communities.

Article
36

1. Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided
by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop
contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for
spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with
their own members as well as other peoples across borders.

2. States, in consultation and cooperation with
indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the
exercise and ensure the implementation of this right.

Article
37

1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the
recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and
other constructive arrangements concluded with States or their
successors and to have States honour and respect such treaties,
agreements and other constructive arrangements.

2. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted
as diminishing or eliminating the rights of indigenous peoples
contained in treaties, agreements and other constructive
arrangements.

Article
38

States,
in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take
the appropriate measures, including legislative measures, to achieve
the ends of this Declaration.

Article
39

Indigenous
peoples have the right to have access to financial and
technical assistance from
States and through international cooperation, for the enjoyment of
the rights contained in this Declaration.

Article
40

Indigenous
peoples have the right to access to and prompt decision through just
and fair procedures for the resolution of conflicts and disputes with
States or other parties, as well as to effective remedies for all
infringements of their individual and collective rights. Such a
decision shall give due consideration to the customs, traditions,
rules and legal systems of the indigenous peoples concerned and
international human rights.

Article
41

The
organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations system and
other intergovernmental organizations shall contribute to the full
realization of the provisions of this Declaration through the
mobilization, inter alia, of financial cooperation and technical
assistance. Ways and means of ensuring participation of indigenous
peoples on issues affecting them shall be established.

Article
42

The
United Nations, its bodies, including the Permanent Forum on
Indigenous Issues, and specialized agencies, including at the country
level, and States shall promote respect for and full application of
the provisions of this Declaration and follow up the effectiveness of
this Declaration.

Article
43

The
rights recognized herein constitute the minimum standards for the
survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the
world.

Article
44

All
the rights and freedoms recognized herein are equally guaranteed to
male and female indigenous individuals.

Article
45

Nothing
in this Declaration may be construed as diminishing or extinguishing
the rights indigenous peoples have now or may acquire in the future.

Article
46

1. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted
as implying for any State, people, group or person any right to
engage in any activity or to perform any act contrary to the Charter
of the United Nations or construed as authorizing or encouraging any
action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the
territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent
States.

2. In the exercise of the rights enunciated in
the present Declaration, human rights and fundamental freedoms of all
shall be respected. The exercise of the rights set forth in this
Declaration shall be subject only to such limitations as are
determined by law and in accordance with international human rights
obligations. Any such limitations shall be non-discriminatory and
strictly necessary solely for the purpose of securing due recognition
and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the
just and most compelling requirements of a democratic society.

3. The provisions set forth in this Declaration
shall be interpreted in accordance with the principles of justice,
democracy, respect for human rights, equality, non-discrimination,
good governance and good faith.


Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother
Earth

April 27, 2010

This Declaration was
adopted by the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the
Rights of Mother Earth, in Bolivia. The Bolivian government has
submitted it to the United Nations for consideration.

Preamble

We, the peoples and nations
of Earth:

considering
that we are all part of Mother Earth, an indivisible, living
community of interrelated and interdependent beings with a common
destiny;

gratefully acknowledging
that Mother Earth is the source of life, nourishment and learning and
provides everything we need to live well;

recognizing that the
capitalist system and all forms of depredation, exploitation, abuse
and contamination have caused great destruction, degradation and
disruption of Mother Earth, putting life as we know it today at risk
through phenomena such as climate change;

convinced that in an
interdependent living community it is not possible to recognize the
rights of only human beings without causing an imbalance within
Mother Earth;

affirming that to guarantee
human rights it is necessary to recognize and defend the rights of
Mother Earth and all beings in her and that there are existing
cultures, practices and laws that do so;

conscious of the urgency of
taking decisive, collective action to transform structures and
systems that cause climate change and other threats to Mother Earth;

proclaim this Universal
Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth, and call on the General
Assembly of the United Nation to adopt it, as a common standard of
achievement for all peoples and all nations of the world, and to the
end that every individual and institution takes responsibility for
promoting through teaching, education, and consciousness raising,
respect for the rights recognized in this Declaration and ensure
through prompt and progressive measures and mechanisms, national and
international, their universal and effective recognition and
observance among all peoples and States in the world.

Article 1. Mother Earth

(1) Mother Earth is a living
being.

(2) Mother Earth is a
unique, indivisible, self-regulating community of interrelated beings
that sustains, contains and reproduces all beings.

(3) Each being is defined by
its relationships as an integral part of Mother Earth.

(4) The inherent rights of
Mother Earth are inalienable in that they arise from the same source
as existence.

(5) Mother Earth and all
beings are entitled to all the inherent rights recognized in this
Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as may be made
between organic and inorganic beings, species, origin, use to human
beings, or any other status.

(6) Just as human beings
have human rights, all other beings also have rights which are
specific to their species or kind and appropriate for their role and
function within the communities within which they exist.

(7) The rights of each being
are limited by the rights of other beings and any conflict between
their rights must be resolved in a way that maintains the integrity,
balance and health of Mother Earth.

Article 2. Inherent
Rights of Mother Eart
h

(1) Mother Earth and all
beings of which she is composed have the following inherent rights:

(a) the right to life and to
exist;

(b) the right to be
respected;

(c) the right to regenerate
its bio-capacity and to continue its vital cycles and processes free
from human disruptions;

(d) the right to maintain
its identity and integrity as a distinct, self-regulating and
interrelated being;

(e) the right to water as a
source of life;

(f) the right to clean air;

(g) the right to integral
health;

(h) the right to be free
from contamination, pollution and toxic or radioactive waste;

(i) the right to not have
its genetic structure modified or disrupted in a manner that
threatens it integrity or vital and healthy functioning;

(j) the right to full and
prompt restoration the violation of the rights recognized in this
Declaration caused by human activities;

(2) Each being has the right
to a place and to play its role in Mother Earth for her harmonious
functioning.

(3) Every being has the
right to wellbeing and to live free from torture or cruel treatment
by human beings.

Article 3. Obligations of
human beings to Mother Eart
h

(1) Every human being is
responsible for respecting and living in harmony with Mother Earth.

(2) Human beings, all
States, and all public and private institutions must:

(a) act in accordance with
the rights and obligations recognized in this Declaration;

(b) recognize and promote
the full implementation and enforcement of the rights and obligations
recognized in this Declaration;

(c) promote and participate
in learning, analysis, interpretation and communication about how to
live in harmony with Mother Earth in accordance with this
Declaration;

(d) ensure that the pursuit
of human wellbeing contributes to the wellbeing of Mother Earth, now
and in the future;

(e) establish and apply
effective norms and laws for the defence, protection and conservation
of the rights of Mother Earth;

(f) respect, protect,
conserve and where necessary, restore the integrity, of the vital
ecological cycles, processes and balances of Mother Earth;

(g) guarantee that the
damages caused by human violations of the inherent rights recognized
in this Declaration are rectified and that those responsible are held
accountable for restoring the integrity and health of Mother Earth;

(h) empower human beings and
institutions to defend the rights of Mother Earth and of all beings;

(i) establish precautionary
and restrictive measures to prevent human activities from causing
species extinction, the destruction of ecosystems or the disruption
of ecological cycles;

(j) guarantee peace and
eliminate nuclear, chemical and biological weapons;

(k) promote and support
practices of respect for Mother Earth and all beings, in accordance
with their own cultures, traditions and customs;

(l) promote economic systems
that are in harmony with Mother Earth and in accordance with the
rights recognized in this Declaration.

Article 4. Definitions

(1) The term “being”
includes ecosystems, natural communities, species and all other
natural entities which exist as part of Mother Earth.

(2) Nothing in this
Declaration restricts the recognition of other inherent rights of all
beings or specified beings.

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